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As a reliable method of assessing the structural integrity of pile foundations (and deep foundations), we provide Sonic echo / Impulse response pile integrity testing (PIT) in accordance to ASTM D5882-16 and AS 2159-2009 methodology.This testing method may alternatively be referred to as “Low-strain dynamic pile test”.


Structural Auditing QA/QC

  • Accurate assessment of defects and extent
  • QA/QC of on-going concrete works
  • Pre-sign-off inspection of Concrete works
  • Litigation and dispute settlement
  • Better remediation strategy planning
  • Reliable post-remediation


Based on stress wave propagation and reflection theory; a stress wave (compression / tension) in a uniform rod is reflected if the wave encounters an impedance change or discontinuity. Structurally sound shafts made with concrete should have:

  • Reflection wave from shaft toe with only minor variations of the record amplitudes between impact and toe reflection.
  • Sound shafts may also be indicated by negative velocity reflections which are often caused by bulges (softer soils), auger-wobble or excess grout pressure allow for an enlargement of the bored hole.

Pile Integrity QA/QC

The characterization and location of defects is only as good as the accuracy of wave velocity determination and quality of the pile. Results may be categorized into:

  • AA: Sound shaft integrity indicated a clear toe reflection (within accuracy limits of design length and wave speed).
  • BB: No major defect indicated (neither reflections from pile size changes, nor defects nor a clear toe response).
  • ABx: No major defect indicated to a depth of x (m) due to the limitation of PIT, interpretation of the full length is not possible. A large bulge or high soil resistance may cause the shafts fall into this category.
  • PFx: Indication of a probable flaw at approximate depth of x (m) reflection corresponding to an unplanned reduction in size or material quality and toe reflection is apparent.
  • PDx: Indication of a probable defect at an approximate depth of x (m), major reduction of size or material defect cause a strong reflection
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